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The majestic central dome, which reaches a height of feet 73 metres at the tip of its finial , is surrounded by four lesser domes. The acoustics inside the main dome cause the single note of a flute to reverberate five times.
The interior of the mausoleum is organized around an octagonal marble chamber ornamented with low-relief carvings and semiprecious stones pietra dura.
Those false tombs are enclosed by a finely wrought filigree marble screen. Beneath the tombs, at garden level, lie the true sarcophagi.
Standing gracefully apart from the central building, at each of the four corners of the square plinth, are elegant minarets. The garden is set out along classical Mughal lines—a square quartered by long watercourses pools —with walking paths, fountains, and ornamental trees.
The southern end of the complex is graced by a wide red sandstone gateway with a recessed central arch two stories high.
The main arch is flanked by two pairs of smaller arches. Crowning the northern and southern facades of the gateway are matching rows of white chattri s chhattri s; cupola-like structures , 11 to each facade, accompanied by thin ornamental minarets that rise to some 98 feet 30 metres.
At the four corners of the structure are octagonal towers capped with larger chattri s. Two notable decorative features are repeated throughout the complex: pietra dura and Arabic calligraphy.
The colours serve to moderate the dazzling expanse of the white Makrana marble. One of the inscriptions in the sandstone gateway is known as Daybreak —30 and invites the faithful to enter paradise.
Calligraphy also encircles the soaring arched entrances to the mausoleum proper. To ensure a uniform appearance from the vantage point of the terrace, the lettering increases in size according to its relative height and distance from the viewer.
Over the centuries the Taj Mahal has been subject to neglect and decay. A major restoration was carried out at the beginning of the 20th century under the direction of Lord Curzon , then the British viceroy of India.
More recently, air pollution caused by emissions from foundries and other nearby factories and exhaust from motor vehicles has damaged the mausoleum, notably its marble facade.
A number of measures have been taken to reduce the threat to the monument, among them the closing of some foundries and the installation of pollution-control equipment at others, the creation of a parkland buffer zone around the complex, and the banning of nearby vehicular traffic.
A restoration and research program for the Taj Mahal was initiated in Progress in improving environmental conditions around the monument has been slow, however.
Night viewing was banned there between and because it was feared that the monument would be a target of Sikh militants.
In addition, it increasingly has come to be seen as an Indian cultural symbol. Some Hindu nationalist groups have attempted to diminish the importance of the Muslim influence in accounting for the origins and design of the Taj Mahal.
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Named the Taj Mahal in honor of Mumtaz Mahal, the mausoleum was constructed of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones including jade, crystal, lapis lazuli, amethyst and turquoise forming intricate designs in a technique known as pietra dura.
Its central dome reaches a height of feet 73 meters and is surrounded by four smaller domes; four slender towers, or minarets, stood at the corners.
In accordance with the traditions of Islam , verses from the Quran were inscribed in calligraphy on the arched entrances to the mausoleum, in addition to numerous other sections of the complex.
Inside the mausoleum, an octagonal marble chamber adorned with carvings and semi-precious stones housed the cenotaph, or false tomb, of Mumtaz Mahal.
The real sarcophagus containing her actual remains lay below, at garden level. Traditional Mughal building practice would allow no future alterations to be made to the complex.
As the story goes, Shah Jahan intended to build a second grand mausoleum across the Yamuna River from the Taj Mahal, where his own remains would be buried when he died; the two structures were to have been connected by a bridge.
Shah Jahan lived out the last years of his life under house arrest in a tower of the Red Fort at Agra, with a view of the majestic resting place he had constructed for his wife; when he died in , he was buried next to her.
However, his militant Muslim policies, including the destruction of many Hindu temples and shrines, undermined the enduring strength of the empire and led to its demise by the midth century.
Today, some 3 million people a year or around 45, a day during peak tourist season visit the Taj Mahal. Some factories were closed, while vehicular traffic was banned from the immediate vicinity of the complex.
But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. During the march, thousands of Indians followed Gandhi from his religious retreat near Ahmedabad to the Arabian Sea Although faced with the challenge of uniting a vast population diverse in culture, language and religion, he Today, with about million followers, Hinduism is the third-largest religion behind Christianity and Islam.
A tomb is a house, chamber or vault for the dead. The original purpose of a tomb was to protect the dead and provide the deceased with a dwelling equipped with necessities for the afterlife.
Tombs probably arose from the prehistoric practice of burying the deceased in their own According to ancient historians, Amytis had difficulty adjusting to life in the flat deserts of Babylon and It is believed over 1, elephants were used to transport building materials.
It took the efforts of 22, labourers, painters, embroidery artists and stonecutters to shape the Taj Mahal. The turquoise was from Tibet and the Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan , while the sapphire came from Sri Lanka and the carnelian from Arabia.
In all, twenty-eight types of precious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into the white marble. According to the legend, Shah Jahan decreed that anyone could keep the bricks taken from the scaffold, and thus it was dismantled by peasants overnight.
Water was drawn from the river by a series of purs , an animal-powered rope and bucket mechanism, into a large storage tank and raised to a large distribution tank.
It was passed into three subsidiary tanks, from which it was piped to the complex. The plinth and tomb took roughly 12 years to complete.
The remaining parts of the complex took an additional 10 years and were completed in order of minarets, mosque and jawab, and gateway. Since the complex was built in stages, discrepancies exist in completion dates due to differing opinions on "completion".
Construction of the mausoleum itself was essentially completed by  while work on the outlying buildings continued for years.
Estimates of the cost of construction vary due to difficulties in estimating costs across time. The total cost at the time has been estimated to be about 32 million Indian rupees,  which is around Upon Shah Jahan's death, Aurangzeb buried him in the mausoleum next to his wife.
Kanbo, a Mughal historian, said the gold shield which covered the 4. By the late 19th century, parts of the buildings had fallen into disrepair.
At the end of the 19th century, British viceroy Lord Curzon ordered a sweeping restoration project, which was completed in During this time the garden was remodelled with European-style lawns that are still in place today.
In , the government erected scaffolding to disguise the building in anticipation of air attacks by the Japanese Air Force. More recent threats have come from environmental pollution on the banks of the Yamuna River including acid rain  due to the Mathura Oil Refinery , [ citation needed ] which was opposed by Supreme Court of India directives.
Concerns for the tomb's structural integrity have recently been raised because of a decline in the groundwater level in the Yamuna river basin which is falling at a rate of around 1.
In , cracks appeared in parts of the tomb, and the minarets which surround the monument were showing signs of tilting, as the wooden foundation of the tomb may be rotting due to lack of water.
It has been pointed out by politicians, however, that the minarets are designed to tilt slightly outwards to prevent them from crashing on top of the tomb in the event of an earthquake.
In , it was reported that some predictions indicated that the tomb could collapse within five years. Small minarets located at two of the outlying buildings were reported as damaged by a storm on April 11, The Taj Mahal attracts a large number of tourists.
Polluting traffic is not allowed near the complex and tourists must either walk from parking areas or catch an electric bus.
The Khawasspuras northern courtyards are currently being restored for use as a new visitor centre. The small town to the south of the Taj, known as Taj Ganji or Mumtazabad, was initially constructed with caravanserais , bazaars and markets to serve the needs of visitors and workers.
The grounds are open from to weekdays, except for Friday when the complex is open for prayers at the mosque between and The complex is open for night viewing on the day of the full moon and two days before and after,  excluding Fridays and the month of Ramadan.
Foreign dignitaries often visit the Taj Mahal on trips to India. Ever since its construction, the building has been the source of an admiration transcending culture and geography, and so personal and emotional responses have consistently eclipsed scholastic appraisals of the monument.
It was suggested that his son Aurangzeb overthrew Shah Jahan before it could be built. Ruins of blackened marble across the river in Moonlight Garden , Mahtab Bagh, seemed to support this legend.
However, excavations carried out in the s found that they were discoloured white stones that had turned black. A dark reflection of the white mausoleum could clearly be seen, befitting Shah Jahan's obsession with symmetry and the positioning of the pool itself.
Warrior Empire: The Mughals of India. No evidence exists for claims that describe, often in horrific detail, the deaths, dismemberments and mutilations which Shah Jahan supposedly inflicted on various architects and craftsmen associated with the tomb.
Some stories claim that those involved in construction signed contracts committing themselves to have no part in any similar design.
Similar claims are made for many famous buildings. Bentinck's biographer John Rosselli says that the story arose from Bentinck's fund-raising sale of discarded marble from Agra Fort.
Another myth suggests that beating the silhouette of the finial will cause water to come forth. To this day, officials find broken bangles surrounding the silhouette.
In , India's Supreme Court dismissed P. Oak 's petition  to declare that a Hindu king built the Taj Mahal.
A theory that the Taj Mahal was designed by an Italian, Geronimo Vereneo, held sway for a brief period after it was first promoted by Henry George Keene in who went by a translation of a Spanish work Itinerario , The Travels of Fray Sebastian Manrique, — These ideas were revived by Father Hosten and discussed again by E.
Havell and served as the basis for subsequent theories and controversies. As of , several court cases about Taj Mahal being a Hindu temple have been inspired by P.
Oak's theory. The BJP government's union minister of culture Mahesh Sharma stated in November during a session of the parliament, that there was no evidence that it was a temple.
A controversy was created in when the Uttar Pradesh government did not include it in its official tourism booklet "Uttar Pradesh Tourism - Unlimited Possibilities".
The chief minister Yogi Adityanath had earlier claimed it does not represent Indian culture. He claimed it was built by a man who jailed his own father and wished to kill Hindus.
CM Adityanath stated Som's comments were personal and the government will focus on the tourism potential of every monument. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Taj Mahal disambiguation. Marble mausoleum in Agra, India. Location of Taj Mahal in Uttar Pradesh. Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.
Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal. Main article: Origins and architecture of the Taj Mahal. Play media.
Taj Mahal gallery. Interior view of the vaulted dome over the tombs of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz. The false sarcophagi of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the main chamber.
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level. Detailed exterior design. Detailed interior design.
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Archived from the original on 8 December Treasures of the World. Public Broadcasting Service.On the lid of the casket is a traditional Taj Mahal Today of a small pen box. Find My Android Online Premium: Serving the evolving needs of knowledge seekers. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian in origin. World Heritage Sites in India. The Art Bulletin. Archived from the original on 21 February Taj Mahal gets babycare and feeding Hobro Ik for convenience of female tourists Union Culture Minister Prahlad Shop Fruits Online Patel on Thursday inaugurated a Babycare and Feeding Room in the campus of world-famous monument Taj Mahal in Agra and began the operation of a water conservation system at the historic site. Bring the saga come alive!! ASI monuments to reopen from July 6; visitors to be capped, masks mandatory: Centre The rules of the states and the districts, in which the monuments are located, will be followed when they are opened for visit. Agra Fort Red Fortalso on the right bank of the Yamuna, is about 1 mile 1.